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Preplanned Studies: A Landscape Analysis on Virus: based on NCBI Database

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  • Summary

    What is already known about this topic?

    Studies indicate that viruses could spread across species, but it is difficult to know when and where such small probability events occur because it is almost impossible to design an observational study on the whole landscape.

    What is added by this report?

    We did a comprehensive analysis on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database and tried to find the time, place, and host that the viruses stayed in their long evolutionary history.

    What are the implications for public health practice?

    Public databases are helpful to understand the risk of virus infection in humans and also a cost-effective method for monitoring public health and safety events.

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  • Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [No. 2020YFC0849200, 2021YFC0863400] and NSFC projects [No. 72174004, 91546203, 91846302]
  • [1] Walker PJ, Siddell SG, Lefkowitz EJ, Mushegian AR, Adriaenssens EM, Alfenas-Zerbini P, et al. Changes to virus taxonomy and to the international code of virus classification and nomenclature ratified by the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (2021). Arch Virol 2021;166(9):2633 − 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05156-1CrossRef
    [2] World Health Organization. Zoonoses. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/zoonoses. [2021-12-01].https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/zoonoses
    [3] Gebreyes WA, Dupouy-Camet J, Newport MJ, Oliveira CJB, Schlesinger LS, Saif YM, et al. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014;8(11):e3257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257CrossRef
    [4] The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. 2021. https://cites.org/eng/disc/text.php. [2021-12-01].https://cites.org/eng/disc/text.php
    [5] World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Zoonotic diseases: a guide to establishing collaboration between animal and human health sectors at the country level. Geneva: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2008. https://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/10415.https://iris.wpro.who.int/handle/10665.1/10415
    [6] Wilder-Smith A, Osman S. Public health emergencies of international concern: a historic overview. J Travel Med 2020;27(8):taaa227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa227CrossRef
    [7] Mahmoudabadi G, Phillips R. A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes. eLife 2018;7:e31955. http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31955CrossRef
    [8] Vanneste K, Garlant L, Broeders S, Van Gucht S, Roosens NH. Application of whole genome data for in silico evaluation of primers and probes routinely employed for the detection of viral species by RT-qPCR using dengue virus as a case study. BMC Bioinform 2018;19(1):312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-018-2313-0CrossRef
  • FIGURE 1.  Flow diagram depicting the process of identification and inclusion of selected records.

    Abbreviation: NCBI=National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    FIGURE 2.  Coexisting virus species among animals, plants, and microbes. (A1) The number and intersection of virus species reported from NCBI Virus Database between 1865 and 2021/9. (A2) First reported host family sorted by first report time among coexisting virus species; (B) Coexisting virus species between Homo sapiens and animals, plants, or microbes.

    Notes: The host families represented by the tags were shown in Supplementary Table S4, available in http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/.

    TABLE S2.  Characteristics of first reported viruses.

    Virus speciesTypeWhy reportFirst reported timeFirst reported locationFirst reported host
    AvipoxvirusAnimal virusFirst animal virus reported in database1865PeruLeptotila rufaxilla
    Cotton leaf curl Multan virusPlant virusFirst plant virus reported in database1918ChinaHibiscus rosa-sinensis
    Saccharomyces paradoxus virusMicrobe virusFirst microbe virus reported in database1931RussiaSaccharomyces paradoxus
    Influenza A virusAnimal virusThe most widely distributed virus in database1902ItalyGallus gallus and unspecified Aves
    SARSr-CovAnimal virusThe most submitted virus in database2003ChinaHomo sapiens
    Aeromonas phage PZL-Ah8Microbe virusLatest new virus reported in database2021ChinaAeromonas hydrophila
    Vaccinia virusAnimal virusThe earliest reported human-animal co-virus1866the United StatesHomo sapiens
    Download: CSV

    TABLE S3.  New viruses reported times in each country or region.

    Country/regionNo. of report times
    United States of America6628
    China4518
    Brazil1032
    Australia994
    Italy730
    Germany590
    Spain552
    India529
    United Kingdom424
    Japan379
    France304
    Canada300
    Republic of Korea297
    New Zealand291
    Denmark264
    Mexico248
    South Africa230
    Hungary220
    Russia212
    Bangladesh207
    Kenya198
    Sweden195
    Thailand167
    Zambia162
    Cameroon158
    Antarctica157
    Netherlands151
    Finland143
    Ghana137
    Taiwan, China133
    Argentina122
    Iran119
    Pakistan119
    Portugal108
    Czech Republic107
    Nigeria97
    Austria91
    Switzerland86
    Colombia85
    Vietnam83
    Turkey79
    Uganda77
    Poland75
    Cote d'Ivoire74
    Belgium73
    Tunisia71
    Malaysia70
    Indonesia69
    Hong Kong, China65
    Philippines63
    Gabon62
    Bulgaria57
    Bermuda56
    Democratic Republic of the Congo55
    Ireland54
    Madagascar54
    Peru53
    Tonga51
    Norway49
    United Republic of Tanzania49
    Israel48
    Panama47
    Egypt45
    Venezuela41
    Chile39
    Greece37
    Costa Rica36
    Central African Republic34
    Cuba34
    Slovenia34
    French Guiana29
    Senegal29
    Ecuador27
    Kuwait27
    Liberia27
    Rwanda27
    Nepal25
    South Georgia and the Islands25
    Trinidad and Tobago25
    United Arab Emirates24
    Croatia22
    Malawi22
    Saudi Arabia22
    Republic of Serbia21
    Georgia20
    Papua New Guinea20
    Bolivia19
    Cambodia19
    Guadeloupe19
    Burkina Faso18
    Lithuania18
    Reunion18
    Myanmar17
    Ethiopia16
    Mauritius16
    Sudan16
    Pacific Ocean14
    Uruguay14
    Mozambique12
    Singapore12
    Ukraine12
    Azerbaijan11
    Iraq11
    Morocco11
    Vanuatu11
    Guatemala10
    Saint Kitts and Nevis10
    Gambia9
    Iceland9
    Oman9
    Sri Lanka9
    Benin8
    Guinea8
    Slovakia8
    Laos7
    Namibia7
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines7
    Afghanistan6
    Algeria6
    Arctic Ocean6
    Dominican Republic6
    Nicaragua6
    The Bahamas6
    Belarus5
    Honduras5
    Jamaica5
    Jordan5
    Mongolia5
    Romania5
    Yemen5
    Albania4
    Estonia4
    Kazakhstan4
    Kyrgyzstan4
    Mali4
    Mayotte4
    Solomon Islands4
    Cayman Islands3
    Latvia3
    Paraguay3
    Samoa3
    South Sudan3
    Syria3
    Togo3
    Turkmenistan3
    Zimbabwe3
    Angola2
    Armenia2
    Bhutan2
    Bosnia and Herzegovina2
    Christmas Island2
    Comoros2
    Cyprus2
    Czechoslovakia2
    Indian Ocean Territories2
    Lebanon2
    Libya2
    Moldova2
    Niger2
    Saint Barthelemy2
    Seychelles2
    Sierra Leone2
    Barbados1
    Belize1
    Botswana1
    Chad1
    East Timor1
    Faroe Islands1
    Fiji1
    Grenada1
    Haiti1
    Kiribati1
    Mediterranean Sea1
    Midway Islands1
    Montenegro1
    New Caledonia1
    Somalia1
    Suriname1
    Uzbekistan1
    Yugoslavia1
    Download: CSV

    TABLE S4.  Co-existed viruses host family and tags.

    Host familyTag
    AleyrodidaeH2
    AlstroemeriaceaeH3
    AmaranthaceaeH4
    AmaryllidaceaeH5
    AnatidaeH6
    AnimaliaH7
    AphididaeH8
    ApiaceaeH9
    ApidaeH10
    ApocynaceaeH11
    AraceaeH12
    AraneaeH13
    ArecaceaeH14
    AsparagaceaeH15
    AsteraceaeH16
    BacteriaH17
    BalsaminaceaeH18
    BegoniaceaeH19
    BifidobacteriaceaeH20
    BotryosphaeriaceaeH21
    BrassicaceaeH22
    BovidaeH23
    CactaceaeH24
    CalceolariaceaeH25
    CampanulaceaeH26
    CannaceaeH27
    CaprifoliaceaeH28
    CaryophyllaceaeH29
    CelastraceaeH30
    CeratobasidiaceaeH31
    CervidaeH32
    ChiropteraH33
    CicadellidaeH34
    CoccoideaH35
    CommelinaceaeH36
    ConvolvulaceaeH37
    CucurbitaceaeH38
    CulicidaeH39
    CurculionidaeH40
    DelphacidaeH41
    DipteraH42
    DrosophilidaeH43
    EimeriidaeH44
    EnterobacteriaceaeH45
    EnterococcaceaeH46
    EntomophthoraceaeH47
    FabaceaeH48
    FirmicutesH49
    GentianaceaeH50
    GeraniaceaeH51
    GesneriaceaeH52
    GruidaeH53
    HexapodaH54
    Homo sapiensH55
    IridaceaeH56
    LactobacillaceaeH57
    LamiaceaeH58
    LaniidaeH59
    LeporidaeH60
    LiliaceaeH61
    LutjanidaeH62
    MalvaceaeH63
    MarantaceaeH64
    MicrocystaceaeH65
    MoringaceaeH66
    MuscicapidaeH67
    MycosphaerellaceaeH68
    NymphalidaeH69
    OleaceaeH70
    OrchidaceaeH71
    PedaliaceaeH72
    PeronosporaceaeH73
    PhasianidaeH74
    PhoenicopteridaeH75
    PhthiracaridaeH76
    PiperaceaeH77
    PittosporaceaeH78
    PlantaginaceaeH79
    PleosporaceaeH80
    PoaceaeH81
    PrimulaceaeH82
    PrunellidaeH83
    PseudomonadaceaeH84
    RanunculaceaeH85
    RosaceaeH86
    RubiaceaeH87
    SalmonidaeH88
    SclerotiniaceaeH89
    SolanaceaeH90
    SpermatophytaH91
    SporormiaceaeH92
    StaphylococcaceaeH93
    StreptococcaceaeH94
    SuidaeH95
    TetranychidaeH96
    ThelephoraceaeH97
    ThripidaeH98
    ThysanopteraH99
    TropaeolaceaeH100
    TurdidaeH101
    ViverridaeH102
    ZygophyllaceaeH103
    Download: CSV

    TABLE S1.  The top five widely distributed viruses and hosts.

    Virus speciesDistributed countries/regions
    Influenza A virusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antarctica; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Czechoslovakia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; West Bank; Zambia; Zimbabwe (155)
    Human immunodeficiency virus 1Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe (151)
    Hepatitis B virusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zimbabwe (145)
    Rabies lyssavirusAfghanistan; Algeria; Argentina; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jersey; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Svalbard; Swaziland; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (128)
    Dengue virusAngola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Arctic Ocean; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Borneo; Brazil; British Virgin Islands; Brunei; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Cuba; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; East Timor; Ecuador; El Salvador; Eritrea; Federated States of Micronesia; Fiji; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Iran; Ireland; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Laos; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Nepal; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Pacific Ocean; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Reunion; Russia; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Taiwan, China; Thailand; The Bahamas; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tuvalu; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen (122)
    Measles
    morbillivirus
    Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chile; China; Colombia; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ecuador; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guatemala; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe (122)
    HostDistributed countries
    Homo sapiensAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Arctic Ocean; Argentina; Armenia; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bolivia; Borneo; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; British Virgin Islands; Brunei; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; East Timor; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Federated States of Micronesia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Niue; Norway; Oman; Pacific Ocean; Pakistan; Palau; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tome and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; The Bahamas; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Wallis and Futuna; West Bank; Western Sahara; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (225)
    Bos taurusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Denmark; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; France; French Guiana; Gaza Strip; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Guinea; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe (143)
    Canis lupus familiarisAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Senegal; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (123)
    Gallus gallusAfghanistan; Algeria; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mexico; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Oman; Pakistan; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; West Bank; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe (122)
    Sus scrofaAfghanistan; Albania; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Haiti; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritius; Mexico; Mongolia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (110)
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A Landscape Analysis on Virus: based on NCBI Database

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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Studies indicate that viruses could spread across species, but it is difficult to know when and where such small probability events occur because it is almost impossible to design an observational study on the whole landscape.

What is added by this report?

We did a comprehensive analysis on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database and tried to find the time, place, and host that the viruses stayed in their long evolutionary history.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Public databases are helpful to understand the risk of virus infection in humans and also a cost-effective method for monitoring public health and safety events.

  • 1. School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • 2. West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
  • 3. Goodwill Hessian Health Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, China
  • 4. State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
  • 5. Center for Intelligent Public Health, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • 6. Center for Drug Abuse Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health Data Science, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • Corresponding author:

    Zhongwei Jia, urchinjj@163.com

  • Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China [No. 2020YFC0849200, 2021YFC0863400] and NSFC projects [No. 72174004, 91546203, 91846302]
  • Online Date: February 02 2022
    doi: 10.46234/ccdcw2022.019
  • According to ‎the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Master Species List 2020, more than 9,000 virus species have been identified on earth (1), of which the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that more than 200 species were known as zoonotic viruses (2). Previous studies have also shown that zoonoses (hantavirus, Ebola virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, norovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1, Marburg virus, influenza A virus) infected more than 2.5 billion people every year, among which 2.7 million died (3). Zoonotic viruses have aroused broad concerns in recent years so that people have been encouraged to avoid eating wild animals, and a series of animal protection laws and regulations were enacted, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (4). Researchers from different fields and countries have tried to collaborate to explore virus associations between animals and humans worldwide (5). However, many studies only focused on investigating a specific virus when it received enough attention as in a localized or global epidemic, such as Ebola virus, H1N1, Zika virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (6). Even so, it’s difficult for people to know exactly when, where and how the virus jumped from animal or environment to humans because it is impossible to design an observational study on the whole landscape around a virus. To understand the overall evolution law of viruses, this study aimed to find the spatial and temporal distribution of viruses and related hosts through the public database.

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) virus database is a database of gene sequences maintained by the National Institutes of Health that aggregates and annotates all publicly available nucleotide and protein sequences, and it has been used for studies exploring quantitative snapshots of viral genomic trends and overviewing virus real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method performance (7-8). In this study, we performed a spatiotemporal analysis on the viruses in the NCBI database and tried to disclose the potential time, place, and hosts that the virus appeared or stayed in their long evolutionary history. Our study indicated the top five widely distributed viruses and found that no virus had been reported in all countries/regions. In addition, the reported areas of viruses did not completely overlap with areas where their suspected hosts live. We also found that the 249 viruses isolated from humans were also isolated from 705 other mammals and 938 non-mammals. We attempted to map the distribution and evolution of viruses and identify suspected hosts globally based on the NCBI database, which was helpful for understanding the risk of virus infection in humans and was also a cost-effective method for monitoring and predicting public health and safety events globally.

    The data were downloaded from the NCBI Virus database and covered available data up to September 2021 (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/virus). The data included virus genomic sequence submission information (accession number, submitter, and release date), virus types (species, genus, and family), and biological sample description (location, organisms of sample, isolation, and collection date). Data that were duplicated, missing, or had unidentified collected dates, locations, or organisms of the biological samples were excluded. Because the NCBI only reported that the virus was isolated from an organism, not whether the organism was the host of the virus, we referred to the organisms as suspected hosts. Based on the standard of NCBI taxonomy, suspected hosts were classified into animals, plants, and microbes.

    The numbers were calculated by virus species, suspected hosts, suspected host locations, and collection time. The spatiotemporal distribution was mapped in country/region units and the path was analyzed by linking the reported location of the viruses or suspected hosts. Potential zoonotic diseases were explored by observing the suspected hosts from which the viruses were isolated.

    All statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software (version 4.1.0, The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Animal silhouettes representing hosts were downloaded from PhyloPic (http://www.phylopic.org). All maps were made by using ArcGIS (version 10.7, Esri Inc, Redlands, CA, USA).

    A total of 605,504 records covering 24,234 viruses from 240 countries/regions with sample collection date from 1865 to September 22, 2021 were involved in the final analysis. We observed that 12,243 viruses were isolated from 4,187 animals, 2,856 from 2,074 plants, and 9,176 from 965 microbes (Figure 1). However, more than 90% viruses (21,845 of 24,234) were reported in a single country/region, and the remaining 10% (2,389 of 24,234) of viruses were from 236 countries/regions and were isolated from 4,742 suspected hosts in 238 countries/regions.

    Figure 1.  Flow diagram depicting the process of identification and inclusion of selected records. Abbreviation: NCBI=National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    The top five widely distributed viruses were influenza A virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis B virus, rabies lyssavirus, dengue virus, and measles morbillivirus (dengue virus and measles morbillivirus tied for fifth place), which were reported in 155, 151, 145, 128, 122, and 122 countries/regions, respectively (Supplementary Table S1). Influenza A virus was reported over approximately 118 years, ranging from the first report in Italy in 1902 to the last report in Tanzania in 2020, and was reported in 155 countries/regions from 422 suspected hosts living in 231 countries/regions. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 was reported over approximately 120 years, ranging from Russia in 1899 to Iraq in 2019, and was reported in 151 countries/regions from 1 suspected host (Homo sapiens) in 225 countries/regions; Hepatitis B virus was reported over approximately 120 years, ranging from Indonesia in 1900 to Ireland in 2020, and was reported in 145 countries/regions from 35 suspected hosts in 229 countries/regions; Rabies lyssavirus was reported over approximately 138 years, ranging from France in 1882 to Equatorial Guinea in 2020, and was reported in 128 countries/regions from 192 suspected hosts in 233 countries/regions; Dengue virus was reported over approximately 75 years, ranging from Colombia in 1944 to Sudan in 2019, and was reported in 122 countries/regions from 25 suspected hosts in 227 countries/regions; Measles morbillivirus was reported over approximately 101 years, ranging from New Zealand in 1919 to United Arab Emirates 2020, and was reported in 122 countries/regions from 3 suspected hosts (Chlorocebus aethiops, Homo sapiens, and Macaca fascicularis) in 225 countries/regions (Figure 2, Supplementary Figure S1A).

    Figure 2.  Coexisting virus species among animals, plants, and microbes. (A1) The number and intersection of virus species reported from NCBI Virus Database between 1865 and 2021/9. (A2) First reported host family sorted by first report time among coexisting virus species; (B) Coexisting virus species between Homo sapiens and animals, plants, or microbes. Notes: The host families represented by the tags were shown in Supplementary Table S4, available in http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/.

    The top five widely distributed suspected hosts were Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Canis lupus familiaris, Gallus gallus, and Sus scrofa, which were reported in 225, 143, 123, 122 and 110 countries/regions, respectively (Supplementary Table S1). Homo sapiens were reported in 225 countries/regions in the past 154 years (from the United States in 1866 to the Faroe Islands in 2020), and approximately 1,075 viruses were isolated from this host. Bos taurus were reported in 143 countries/regions during the past 138 years (from France in 1882 to Luxembourg in 2020) and from which 273 viruses were isolated; Canis lupus familiaris were reported in 123 countries/regions during the past 89 years (from China in 1931 to Ghana in 2020) and from which 106 viruses were isolated; Gallus gallus were reported in 122 countries/regions during the past 118 years (from Italy in 1902 to Timor-Leste in 2020) and from which 287 viruses were isolated; Sus scrofa were reported in 110 countries/regions during the past 99 years (from China in 1921 to Paraguay in 2020) and from which 276 viruses were isolated (Supplementary Figure S1B).

    There were 27 viruses in the database reported to be isolated from animals as well as plants (animals-plants). Similarly, 9 and 5 viruses were isolated from animals-microbes and plants-microbes, respectively (Figure 3A). Specifically, 249 viruses from humans were also isolated from the other 1,643 animals, among which 705 were mammals. Most of the 249 multi-suspected host viruses were reported in the United States (125 of 249), China (141 of 249), and Brazil (107 of 249), with 402, 344, and 187 suspected hosts, respectively (Figure 3B). The first reported human-animal multi-suspected host virus was the Vaccinia virus, isolated from Homo sapiens in the United States in 1866 (Supplementary Table S2).

    Virus speciesTypeWhy reportFirst reported timeFirst reported locationFirst reported host
    AvipoxvirusAnimal virusFirst animal virus reported in database1865PeruLeptotila rufaxilla
    Cotton leaf curl Multan virusPlant virusFirst plant virus reported in database1918ChinaHibiscus rosa-sinensis
    Saccharomyces paradoxus virusMicrobe virusFirst microbe virus reported in database1931RussiaSaccharomyces paradoxus
    Influenza A virusAnimal virusThe most widely distributed virus in database1902ItalyGallus gallus and unspecified Aves
    SARSr-CovAnimal virusThe most submitted virus in database2003ChinaHomo sapiens
    Aeromonas phage PZL-Ah8Microbe virusLatest new virus reported in database2021ChinaAeromonas hydrophila
    Vaccinia virusAnimal virusThe earliest reported human-animal co-virus1866the United StatesHomo sapiens

    Table S2.  Characteristics of first reported viruses.

    Country/regionNo. of report times
    United States of America6628
    China4518
    Brazil1032
    Australia994
    Italy730
    Germany590
    Spain552
    India529
    United Kingdom424
    Japan379
    France304
    Canada300
    Republic of Korea297
    New Zealand291
    Denmark264
    Mexico248
    South Africa230
    Hungary220
    Russia212
    Bangladesh207
    Kenya198
    Sweden195
    Thailand167
    Zambia162
    Cameroon158
    Antarctica157
    Netherlands151
    Finland143
    Ghana137
    Taiwan, China133
    Argentina122
    Iran119
    Pakistan119
    Portugal108
    Czech Republic107
    Nigeria97
    Austria91
    Switzerland86
    Colombia85
    Vietnam83
    Turkey79
    Uganda77
    Poland75
    Cote d'Ivoire74
    Belgium73
    Tunisia71
    Malaysia70
    Indonesia69
    Hong Kong, China65
    Philippines63
    Gabon62
    Bulgaria57
    Bermuda56
    Democratic Republic of the Congo55
    Ireland54
    Madagascar54
    Peru53
    Tonga51
    Norway49
    United Republic of Tanzania49
    Israel48
    Panama47
    Egypt45
    Venezuela41
    Chile39
    Greece37
    Costa Rica36
    Central African Republic34
    Cuba34
    Slovenia34
    French Guiana29
    Senegal29
    Ecuador27
    Kuwait27
    Liberia27
    Rwanda27
    Nepal25
    South Georgia and the Islands25
    Trinidad and Tobago25
    United Arab Emirates24
    Croatia22
    Malawi22
    Saudi Arabia22
    Republic of Serbia21
    Georgia20
    Papua New Guinea20
    Bolivia19
    Cambodia19
    Guadeloupe19
    Burkina Faso18
    Lithuania18
    Reunion18
    Myanmar17
    Ethiopia16
    Mauritius16
    Sudan16
    Pacific Ocean14
    Uruguay14
    Mozambique12
    Singapore12
    Ukraine12
    Azerbaijan11
    Iraq11
    Morocco11
    Vanuatu11
    Guatemala10
    Saint Kitts and Nevis10
    Gambia9
    Iceland9
    Oman9
    Sri Lanka9
    Benin8
    Guinea8
    Slovakia8
    Laos7
    Namibia7
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines7
    Afghanistan6
    Algeria6
    Arctic Ocean6
    Dominican Republic6
    Nicaragua6
    The Bahamas6
    Belarus5
    Honduras5
    Jamaica5
    Jordan5
    Mongolia5
    Romania5
    Yemen5
    Albania4
    Estonia4
    Kazakhstan4
    Kyrgyzstan4
    Mali4
    Mayotte4
    Solomon Islands4
    Cayman Islands3
    Latvia3
    Paraguay3
    Samoa3
    South Sudan3
    Syria3
    Togo3
    Turkmenistan3
    Zimbabwe3
    Angola2
    Armenia2
    Bhutan2
    Bosnia and Herzegovina2
    Christmas Island2
    Comoros2
    Cyprus2
    Czechoslovakia2
    Indian Ocean Territories2
    Lebanon2
    Libya2
    Moldova2
    Niger2
    Saint Barthelemy2
    Seychelles2
    Sierra Leone2
    Barbados1
    Belize1
    Botswana1
    Chad1
    East Timor1
    Faroe Islands1
    Fiji1
    Grenada1
    Haiti1
    Kiribati1
    Mediterranean Sea1
    Midway Islands1
    Montenegro1
    New Caledonia1
    Somalia1
    Suriname1
    Uzbekistan1
    Yugoslavia1

    Table S3.  New viruses reported times in each country or region.

    Host familyTag
    AleyrodidaeH2
    AlstroemeriaceaeH3
    AmaranthaceaeH4
    AmaryllidaceaeH5
    AnatidaeH6
    AnimaliaH7
    AphididaeH8
    ApiaceaeH9
    ApidaeH10
    ApocynaceaeH11
    AraceaeH12
    AraneaeH13
    ArecaceaeH14
    AsparagaceaeH15
    AsteraceaeH16
    BacteriaH17
    BalsaminaceaeH18
    BegoniaceaeH19
    BifidobacteriaceaeH20
    BotryosphaeriaceaeH21
    BrassicaceaeH22
    BovidaeH23
    CactaceaeH24
    CalceolariaceaeH25
    CampanulaceaeH26
    CannaceaeH27
    CaprifoliaceaeH28
    CaryophyllaceaeH29
    CelastraceaeH30
    CeratobasidiaceaeH31
    CervidaeH32
    ChiropteraH33
    CicadellidaeH34
    CoccoideaH35
    CommelinaceaeH36
    ConvolvulaceaeH37
    CucurbitaceaeH38
    CulicidaeH39
    CurculionidaeH40
    DelphacidaeH41
    DipteraH42
    DrosophilidaeH43
    EimeriidaeH44
    EnterobacteriaceaeH45
    EnterococcaceaeH46
    EntomophthoraceaeH47
    FabaceaeH48
    FirmicutesH49
    GentianaceaeH50
    GeraniaceaeH51
    GesneriaceaeH52
    GruidaeH53
    HexapodaH54
    Homo sapiensH55
    IridaceaeH56
    LactobacillaceaeH57
    LamiaceaeH58
    LaniidaeH59
    LeporidaeH60
    LiliaceaeH61
    LutjanidaeH62
    MalvaceaeH63
    MarantaceaeH64
    MicrocystaceaeH65
    MoringaceaeH66
    MuscicapidaeH67
    MycosphaerellaceaeH68
    NymphalidaeH69
    OleaceaeH70
    OrchidaceaeH71
    PedaliaceaeH72
    PeronosporaceaeH73
    PhasianidaeH74
    PhoenicopteridaeH75
    PhthiracaridaeH76
    PiperaceaeH77
    PittosporaceaeH78
    PlantaginaceaeH79
    PleosporaceaeH80
    PoaceaeH81
    PrimulaceaeH82
    PrunellidaeH83
    PseudomonadaceaeH84
    RanunculaceaeH85
    RosaceaeH86
    RubiaceaeH87
    SalmonidaeH88
    SclerotiniaceaeH89
    SolanaceaeH90
    SpermatophytaH91
    SporormiaceaeH92
    StaphylococcaceaeH93
    StreptococcaceaeH94
    SuidaeH95
    TetranychidaeH96
    ThelephoraceaeH97
    ThripidaeH98
    ThysanopteraH99
    TropaeolaceaeH100
    TurdidaeH101
    ViverridaeH102
    ZygophyllaceaeH103

    Table S4.  Co-existed viruses host family and tags.

    In the study period, 181 countries/regions reported at least 1 new virus. The top 5 countries reporting the highest number of new virus species were the United States, China, Brazil, Australia, and Italy, with 6,628, 4,518, 1,032, 994, and 730 new virus species, respectively. Newly reported viruses showed a rapid increase since 2003, peaking in 2013, and then showed a jump decline until the bottom of 2019 (Supplementary Figure S2). In 2021, 14 new viruses were reported, of which Belarus, Canada, South Africa, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Switzerland reported 1 new virus, Vietnam reported 2 new viruses, and the United States and China both reported 3 new virus species (Supplementary Table S3).

    Virus speciesDistributed countries/regions
    Influenza A virusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Antarctica; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Czechoslovakia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; West Bank; Zambia; Zimbabwe (155)
    Human immunodeficiency virus 1Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe (151)
    Hepatitis B virusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zimbabwe (145)
    Rabies lyssavirusAfghanistan; Algeria; Argentina; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jersey; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Svalbard; Swaziland; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (128)
    Dengue virusAngola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Arctic Ocean; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Borneo; Brazil; British Virgin Islands; Brunei; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Cuba; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; East Timor; Ecuador; El Salvador; Eritrea; Federated States of Micronesia; Fiji; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Iran; Ireland; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Laos; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Nepal; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Pacific Ocean; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Reunion; Russia; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Sweden; Taiwan, China; Thailand; The Bahamas; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tuvalu; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen (122)
    Measles
    morbillivirus
    Afghanistan; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chile; China; Colombia; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ecuador; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guatemala; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States of America; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe (122)
    HostDistributed countries
    Homo sapiensAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Arctic Ocean; Argentina; Armenia; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bolivia; Borneo; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; British Virgin Islands; Brunei; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; East Timor; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Federated States of Micronesia; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao, China; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Niue; Norway; Oman; Pacific Ocean; Pakistan; Palau; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Serbia; Reunion; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saint Barthelemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tome and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; The Bahamas; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Wallis and Futuna; West Bank; Western Sahara; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (225)
    Bos taurusAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Denmark; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; France; French Guiana; Gaza Strip; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Guinea; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kosovo; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestine; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe (143)
    Canis lupus familiarisAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lesotho; Liberia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Senegal; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (123)
    Gallus gallusAfghanistan; Algeria; Argentina; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Honduras; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Macedonia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mali; Mexico; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Oman; Pakistan; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syria; Taiwan, China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; West Bank; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe (122)
    Sus scrofaAfghanistan; Albania; Angola; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cote d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guatemala; Haiti; Hong Kong, China; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Laos; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritius; Mexico; Mongolia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Norway; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Republic of Serbia; Romania; Russia; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Republic of Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (110)

    Table S1.  The top five widely distributed viruses and hosts.

    • To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, global landscape analysis of viruses utilizing the NCBI virus database. Although the database may not cover all known viruses, the NCBI includes almost all viruses that have had significant impact on humans. The study indicates that approximately 24,234 viruses have been investigated as of September 22, 2021, covering 240 countries/regions and involving suspected hosts of 4,187 animals, 2,074 plants and 965 microbes (Figure 1). The top five most widely distributed viruses were influenza A virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, Hepatitis B virus, rabies lyssavirus, dengue virus and measles morbillivirus, and the top five most widely distributed suspected hosts were Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Canis lupus familiaris, Gallus gallus, and Sus scrofa, which all covered more than 100 countries/regions (Supplementary Table S1). These outcomes pose several concerning issues.

      First, the top five most widely distributed viruses have been investigated and reported in most countries/regions (Supplementary Table S1), but no virus has been reported in all countries/regions. The surprising finding is the distribution of influenza A virus — a respiratory virus closely related to humans. We presumed it should be distributed everywhere and reported by all 240 countries/regions. Our study indicates that influenza A virus is the most reported location but 85 countries/regions have not yet reported it. It is possible that the NCBI database has not collected these viruses in these countries/regions or that these areas have not covered these viruses. In either case, these countries/regions deserve attention from the perspective of virus monitoring.

      Second, the reported areas of viruses do not completely overlap with areas where their suspected hosts live. For example, influenza A virus has been reported in 155 countries/regions, but its 422 hosts live in 231 countries/regions. The results have two explanations: first, the 76 countries/regions may have influenza A virus but do not investigate and report it; second, the 76 countries/regions could have no influenza A virus, which implies that these areas are susceptible to influenza A virus. However, both viruses and suspected hosts all take approximately one hundred years to survive in a region (Supplementary Figure S1). This long period of history leaves many opportunities for people to find and be involved in their evolution.

      Third, we found that 249 viruses from humans were also isolated from other 705 mammals and 938 non-mammals. It is not surprising that most mammals’ zoonoses are from Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos, Canis lupus familiaris, and Bos taurus, because these domestic mammals have a close relationship with humans. Bats (152 kinds of species in the database) and Paguma larvata covered 44 zoonoses and 3 zoonoses with humans in the reported data. We also found 27 viruses from animals and plants that are involved in insects, whether it is related with humans has not been reported (Figure 2).

      This study was subject to some limitations. First, NCBI is a public database, and the data quality may be uneven. However, NCBI has a form for submitted data, which guarantees that the basic information of submitted data is consistent at some level, and these data can meet the requirements of our spatiotemporal analysis. Second, we classified viruses and suspected hosts according to their submitted names. It will be regarded as two different viruses or suspected hosts if their names are spelled differently. For example, Enterovirus A, Enterovirus B, Enterovirus C, and Enterovirus sp. are regarded as different viruses in this study. This might be a slight overestimation of the virus species and suspected hosts submitted in the NCBI database but cannot change their whole spatiotemporal distribution, especially in the long history of their evolution. Further, we identified 249 zoonotic viruses in NCBI, which was consistent with the figure published by the WHO (2). Third, data reported by countries may not be complete, which could lead to bias in the analysis. Also, the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) would cause bias on the temporal discovery of viruses because it was hard to perform large-scale genome sequencing of viruses before NGS became relatively affordable. Fourth, we did not analyze the path of each virus and their suspected hosts. Analysis of the overlap of viruses and their hosts is important for predicting the risk of a new virus outbreak in local areas, but beyond the scope of this study.

      In conclusion, we attempted to map the distribution and evolution of viruses and suspected hosts globally based on the NCBI database, which is helpful for understanding the risk of virus infection in humans and is also a cost-effective method for monitoring and predicting public health and safety events globally.

    • No conflicts of interest.

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