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Key Statistics: Suicide Mortality — China, 2018

  • TABLE 1.  Crude mortality rate, adjusted mortality rate, and age-standardized mortality rate of suicide by gender, area, region, and age per 100,000 population in China, 2018

    ItemsTotalMaleFemale
    CMRAMRASMRCMRAMRASMRCMRAMRASMR
    Total6.187.236.367.188.407.615.146.015.10
    Area
    Urban4.224.944.374.855.675.153.574.183.58
    Rural7.208.427.408.399.818.915.966.975.89
    Region
    Eastern*5.516.445.516.407.496.634.595.364.39
    Central7.408.657.558.519.958.946.257.316.17
    Western§5.566.516.106.607.727.374.495.254.81
    Abbreviation: CMR=Crude Mortality Rate; AMR=Adjusted Mortality Rate; ASMR=Age-standardized Mortality Rate.
    * Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    § Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.
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    TABLE 2.  The distribution of suicide methods by gender, area, and region in China, 2018

    MethodsTotalGenderAreaRegion
    Male Female Urban Rural Eastern* Central Western§
    Poisoning 43.62 40.85 47.61 33.89 46.58 41.50 44.41 45.37
    Hanging 37.07 39.49 33.58 36.18 37.34 38.21 37.93 33.83
    Drowning 5.01 3.91 6.60 4.89 5.05 5.66 4.84 4.33
    Sharp force injury 3.54 4.25 2.52 4.36 3.29 2.51 3.39 5.38
    Falls 9.52 10.02 8.80 18.88 6.67 10.71 8.37 9.79
    Other methods 1.25 1.47 0.89 1.82 1.08 1.42 1.05 1.30
    Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
    * Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    § Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.
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  • Reported by: Shidi Meng; Jinlei Qi; Peng Yin; Jiangmei Liu; Maigeng Zhou, zhoumaigeng@ncncd.chinacdc.cn.
  • There were two previous adjustments to the DSPs in 1990 and 2004 where city districts were defined as urban areas and counties and county-level cities were defined as rural areas. However, rapid development has made these definitions obsolete, and the urbanization index (i.e. the fraction of the population residing in an urban area) was used as the stratifying index (1).
    Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.
  • [1] Liu SW, Wu XL, Lopez AD, Wang LJ, Cai Y, Page A, et al. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China. Bull World Health Organ 2016;94(1):46 − 57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.153148CrossRef
    [2] Guo K, Yin P, Wang LJ, Ji YB, Li QF, Bishai D, et al. Propensity score weighting for addressing under-reporting in mortality surveillance: a proof-of-concept study using the nationally representative mortality data in China. Popul Health Metr 2015;13:16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12963-015-0051-3CrossRef
    [3] National Bureau of Statistics. Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm. [2020-07-30]. (In Chinese). http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm

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Suicide Mortality — China, 2018

  • ItemsTotalMaleFemale
    CMRAMRASMRCMRAMRASMRCMRAMRASMR
    Total6.187.236.367.188.407.615.146.015.10
    Area
    Urban4.224.944.374.855.675.153.574.183.58
    Rural7.208.427.408.399.818.915.966.975.89
    Region
    Eastern*5.516.445.516.407.496.634.595.364.39
    Central7.408.657.558.519.958.946.257.316.17
    Western§5.566.516.106.607.727.374.495.254.81
    Abbreviation: CMR=Crude Mortality Rate; AMR=Adjusted Mortality Rate; ASMR=Age-standardized Mortality Rate.
    * Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    § Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.

    Table 1.  Crude mortality rate, adjusted mortality rate, and age-standardized mortality rate of suicide by gender, area, region, and age per 100,000 population in China, 2018

    MethodsTotalGenderAreaRegion
    Male Female Urban Rural Eastern* Central Western§
    Poisoning 43.62 40.85 47.61 33.89 46.58 41.50 44.41 45.37
    Hanging 37.07 39.49 33.58 36.18 37.34 38.21 37.93 33.83
    Drowning 5.01 3.91 6.60 4.89 5.05 5.66 4.84 4.33
    Sharp force injury 3.54 4.25 2.52 4.36 3.29 2.51 3.39 5.38
    Falls 9.52 10.02 8.80 18.88 6.67 10.71 8.37 9.79
    Other methods 1.25 1.47 0.89 1.82 1.08 1.42 1.05 1.30
    Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
    * Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    § Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.

    Table 2.  The distribution of suicide methods by gender, area, and region in China, 2018

    In this study, the data of 16,824 individual suicide deaths were collected by the Disease Surveillance Points System (DSPs) and estimated to investigate characteristics of suicide deaths in China in 2018. Detailed descriptions of DSPs have been reported elsewhere (1). These data on suicide deaths were stratified by gender, area type (urban/rural), and region (eastern/central/western). The International Classification of Disease, 10th revision (ICD-10) was used to analyze methods of suicide by calculating the proportions of the various methods. ICDs related to suicide included X60-X84 and Y87. The crude mortality rate (CMR) of suicide was calculated by using the number of suicide deaths and respective population. Considering underreporting, the mortality rate was adjusted through a formula: adjusted mortality rate (AMR)=crude morality rate/(1−underreporting rate); the overall underreporting rate of injury (14.5%) was based on propensity score weighting established in a previous study (2). The Sixth National Population Census in 2010 was used for age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) estimation (3).

    Source: China Disease Surveillance Points System (DSPs).

Reported by: Shidi Meng; Jinlei Qi; Peng Yin; Jiangmei Liu; Maigeng Zhou, zhoumaigeng@ncncd.chinacdc.cn.
  • There were two previous adjustments to the DSPs in 1990 and 2004 where city districts were defined as urban areas and counties and county-level cities were defined as rural areas. However, rapid development has made these definitions obsolete, and the urbanization index (i.e. the fraction of the population residing in an urban area) was used as the stratifying index (1).
    Eastern: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong, Hainan.
    Central: Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan.
    Western: Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang (Tibet), Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang.
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