When the preliminary investigation indicated that the epidemic was spreading around the HN market, the market was immediately closed. At the same time, all cases were isolated and treated and close contacts tracked and followed-up with. Environmental samples from the HN market were collected and tested, and case finding, contact tracing, and investigations into the sources of infection were initiated.
Since January 15, suspected cases with travel history to Wuhan were monitored in other regions of China to detect imported cases as early as possible and prevent local transmission. In Wuhan, case surveillance and close contact tracing and management were further strengthened.
Recognizing that 95% of cases detected outside Wuhan were infected during their stay in Wuhan, Wuhan’s city buses, subways, ferries, and long-distance passenger transportation were suspended starting on January 23. Citizens of Wuhan were advised not to leave Wuhan without a special reason. Airports and railway stations’ departure channels from Wuhan were temporarily closed. All these measures were taken to reduce the bidirectional flow of people. Since January 23, the other 12 prefecture-level cities in Hubei Province have also suspended public transport, stopped activities involving mass gatherings, strengthened community prevention and control, actively detected and diagnosed patients with fever, and strengthened patient admission.
Since January 20, the Chinese Government has launched joint prevention and control mechanisms among 33 central governmental departments, and a series of measures have been taken, including: very frequent media communication and public communication to raise awareness of disease prevention, stopping mass gatherings, encouraging people to reduce personal gatherings and wear face masks to reduce the chance of infection. Cellphone GPS back tracking technology, travelling and visiting history investigations and other measurements have been taken to improve the early detection of cases and reduce spreading.
As of January 25, 30 provinces in China with confirmed cases have launched the highest public health emergency response. China has made great efforts to the community mobilization, which mainly depends on sub-district/township and community/village cadres, primary health care centers and family/village doctors. At the same time, residents and volunteers are encouraged to participate in the full- or part-time working teams engaging in door-to-door health promotion, case detection, and management. Early referral of patients to hospital for medical treatment and management should be ensured to avoid further transmission. Medical doctors and nurses will be mobilized nationwide and deployed to support epidemic center areas, in order to restore normal medical care as soon as possible. The cases will be isolated and treated, and nosocomial infection control will be effectively implemented. In addition, home isolation of mild cases under the guidance of health professionals is encouraged to reduce the burden on the health care system and prevent nosocomial transmission.